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How Long Does it Actually Take to Form a New Habit?

2-8 Months to form a habit. Missing an opportunity to perform the action that you desire to install as a habit doesn't significantly affect the process.

James Clear

The Strength Model of Self-Control (2007)

Self-control is like a muscle that gets tired.

Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs, Dianne M. Tice


The No BS Guide to Protecting Your Emotional Space

Comprehensive guide to setting and maintaining boundaries in all areas of life. Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, Ph.d

Jennifer Chesak, Timothy J. Legg, PhD, PsyD

How to Organize Your Life: 10 Habits of Really Organized People

Write everything down, make lists, de-clutter on a regular basis, purge unnecessary belongings, offload responsibilities if possible

Zachary Domes

9 Lesser-Known Tips for Getting & Staying Organized

Decide on what kind of organization you need ie. Time/schedule or spacial/physical

Margarita Tartakovsky, M.S.; Scientific Advisory Board

Why Mess Causes Stress: 8 Reasons, 8 Remedies

Clutter creates a state of over stimulation, causes you to feel as if there is work to be done all the time. It's harder to relax and causes feelings of guilt

Sherrie Bourg Carter Psy.D.

Orthorexia: When 'Clean Eating' Become An Unhealthy Obsession : The Salt : NPR

Sometimes trying to eat healthy can turn into an eating disorder.

April Fulton

The Link Between Self-Esteem and Social Relationships: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies (2019)

"The reciprocal link between self-esteem and social relationships implies that the effects of a positive feedback loop accumulate over time and could be substantial as people go through life," according to Harris.

Michelle A. Harris, Ulrich Orth

American Psychological Association

Perfecting Protein Intake in Trainers: How Much, What, and When?

How plant and animal protein is processed and recommendations for intake strategies

Jorn Trommelen

How To Cope Under Pressure, According To Psychology

Getting "clutch performance" under pressure. Strategies for dealing with high-pressure situations

Emma Young

7 Proven and Practical Emotional Regulation Skills & Techniques

Ways to reappraise thoughts that you have while you're in an emotional state and understand your reactions better

Aditya Shukla

Sleeping Too Much — Or Too Little — Boosts Heart Attack Risk

Based on a study of 500,000 people

Lisa Marshall

The Science and Practice of Self-Control (2017)

How self-control outweighs many other characteristics in academic performance, physical health, longevity, wealth, and income

Angela L. Duckworth, Martin E. P. Seligman

National Center for Biotechnology Information

When False Claims are Repeated, We Start to Believe They are True

How Behaving Like A Fact-Checker Can Help

Matthew Warren

Associations Across Adverse Childhood Experiences Levels (2019)

Associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and risks for adult depression, poor mental health, and insufficient social and emotional support have been documented. Less is known about how positive childhood experiences (PCEs) co-occur with and may modulate the effect of ACEs on adult mental and relational health.

Christina Bethell, PhD, MBA, MPH; Jennifer Jones, MSW; Narangerel Gombojav, MD, PhD; Jeff Linkenbach, EdD; Robert Sege, MD, PhD

JAMA Pediatrics

Why People Procrastinate: The Psychology and Causes of Procrastination

When we need to get something done, we rely primarily on our self-control in order to bring yourself to do it. Our self-control often receives support from our motivation, which helps us get things done in a timely manner.

Solving Procrastination

Exercise May Protect Brain Regions That are Sensitive to Neurodegeneration (2019)

"Physical activity and fitness reflect on brain structure in cognitive decline. Especially brain regions which are affected by neurodegeneration seem to be responsive to exercise and fitness," Reetz and Haeger told PsyPost.

Alexa Haeger, Ana S. Costa, Jörg B. Schulz, Kathrin Reetz


Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification (2019)

Professor Peter Kinderman, University of Liverpool, said: "This study provides yet more evidence that the biomedical diagnostic approach in psychiatry is not fit for purpose. Diagnoses frequently and uncritically reported as ‘real illnesses’ are in fact made on the basis of internally inconsistent, confused and contradictory patterns of largely arbitrary criteria. The diagnostic system wrongly assumes that all distress results from disorder, and relies heavily on subjective judgments about what is normal."

Kate Allsopp, John Read, Rhiannon Corcoran, Peter Kinderman


Manipulation: The Costs Outweigh the Benefits

The tendency to avoid facing unpleasant truths about ourselves is strong in us all. Doing so can activate feelings of shame, humiliation, and guilt. Yet in coming to terms with these deeper feelings we can become more able to have a heightened experience of authenticity, intimacy, freedom, and passion.

Linda and Charlie Bloom

Believing You Get What You Work for Can Destroy Compassion

Those who commit the Just-World Fallacy are more likely to victim-blame.

Veronika Tait Ph.D.

Association of Screen Time and Depression in Adolescence (2019)

The researchers studied the behaviour of over 3,800 young people from 2012 until 2018. They recruited adolescents from 31 Montreal schools and followed their behaviour from Grade 7 until Grade 11.

Elroy Boers, Mohammad H Afzali, Nicola Newton, Patricia Conrod

Pub Med

A Growth Mindset Intervention Can Change Students’ Grades if School Culture is Supportive (2019)

An intervention emphasizing a growth mindset — the belief that intellectual abilities are not fixed but can be developed — can improve key predictors of high school graduation and college success, especially when a school’s culture supports the treatment message.

David S. Yeager, Paul Hanselman, Gregory M. Walton, Jared S. Murray, Robert Crosnoe, Chandra Muller, Elizabeth Tipton, Barbara Schneider, Chris S. Hulleman, Cintia P. Hinojosa, David Paunesku, Carissa Romero, Kate Flint, Alice Roberts, Jill Trott, Ronaldo Iachan, Jenny Buontempo, Sophia Man Yang, Carlos M. Carvalho, P. Richard Hahn, Maithreyi Gopalan, Pratik Mhatre, Ronald Ferguson, Angela L. Duckworth, Carol S. Dweck

Nature Online

Fake News Game Confers Psychological Resistance Against Online Misinformation (2019)

A game was created to teach people about common propaganda techniques and it was effective at helping them spot fake news in further tests

Jon Roozenbeek, Sander van der Linden

Nature Online

A Gradient of Childhood Self-Control Predicts Health, Wealth, and Public Safety (2011)

Self-control correlates with other positive policy outcomes

Terrie E. Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Nigel Dickson


Petal Power: Why is Gardening so Good for Our Mental Health?

Benefits of tending a garden on our mental well-being

Sarah Rayner

Community Gardens Help Kids Grow Healthy Habits and Leadership Skills

Evidence for real life benefits of urban gardening programs in Canadian inner cities

Ben Cousins

Growing Community Through Milwaukee Urban Gardens

Evidence of positive effects on inner city youths and communities and the diverse nature of their implementation based on a neighborhood's particular needs

Groundwork USA

Can Gardening Help Troubled Minds Heal?

Doctors and researchers are examining whether gardening can lessen symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD

Kristofor Husted

How to Calculate Protein RDA Best for Your Body

Overview of RDAs for protein consumption. How to calculate based on body weight. Explains proteins necessity to the body and sources to derive it from

Siddhi Camila Lama, MS, PhD, CNC, CPT

75+ Cheap And Easy Dinner Recipes So You Never Have To Cook A Boring Meal Again

A myriad of single pan dishes that seem to be affordable. Vegetarian options and many include proteins as well as vegetables. A lot of pasta options which might need to be avoided by those who seek to reduce carbohydrate intake

Sienna Livermore, Madison Flager, Dora Villarosa

Melatonin and Sleep

Explanation of how the body produces melatonin and when. Exogenous, (not produced by the body), melatonin has been shown to be effective in certain situations. Controlling natural and artificial light during rest times seems to be the best way at the moment to encourage the natural production and introduction of endogenous melatonin. You should consult a doctor before beginning a melatonin supplement.

Eric Suni, Alex Dimitriu

How to Stick With Good Habits Even When Your Willpower is Gone

Environmental impact on choice. Removing negative choices from a space decreases their being chosen

James Clear

Neuroscientists Find Links Between Patience and Imagination in the Brain (2017)

Be more patient? Imagine that. Neuroscientists find links between patience, imagination in the brain. Imagining consequences before acting on impulse may increase your patience without a need for strengthened willpower. Blog explanation of concept

Adrianna C. Jenkins, Ming Hsu, University of California - Berkeley Haas School of Business, Pamela Tom


Dissociable Contributions of Imagination and Willpower to the Malleability of Human Patience (2017)

Neuroscientists find links between patience, imagination in the brain. Imagining consequences before acting on impulse may increase your patience without a need for strengthened willpower. Complete research paper

Adrianna C. Jenkins, Ming Hsu

Association for Psychological Science

Purpose as a Form of Identity Capital for Positive Youth Adjustment (2011)

Having a sense of purpose is important to adolescent well-being

Anthony L. Burrow, Patrick L. Hill

Semantic Scholar

What True Love Really Is

7 principles to employ while learning to love

The School of Life, Ada Wikdal

Forgiveness: Letting Go of Grudges and Bitterness

Forgiveness is something that we give to others but we receive the benefits. Physically and mentally forgiveness releases us from the burdens of carrying around the pain that another has caused us.

Mayo Clinic Staff

What is Goal Setting and How to Do It Well

Great overview on goal setting. Be realistic, specific and set deadlines. Frame goals in a positive light. Many sources sighted.

Elaine Houston B.Sc.

The Effect of Repeated Writing on Memory (1995)

Study linking repeated writing to better recall.

Makiko Naka, Hiroshi Naoi

Springer Link

Goal Setting, Planning, and Organizational Performance: An Experimental Simulation (1990)

More quality time spent planning your goals yields better results

Ken G. Smith, Edwin A. Locke, David Barry


Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation (2002)

Summary of 35 years worth of research on goal setting

Edwin A. Locke, Gary P. Latham

American Psychological Association

Mental Health Recovery, Goal Setting, and Working Alliance in an Australian Community-Managed Organization (2018)

Study indicating that goal setting and achievement had a positive effect on mental health recovery

Grenville Rose, Lorraine Smith

Sage Journals

Interpersonal Goals, Others' Regard for the Self, and Self-Esteem: The Paradoxical Consequences of Self-Image and Compassionate Goals (2011)

Study testing the differences between goals that attempt to improve someone's opinion of one's self and goals that focus on compassionate acts towards others. Study suggests that the people who try to improve how others' view them, tend to fail at that aim and lose self-esteem. Those that set goals focused on compassionate acts, had increased self-esteem and other people's opinion of them went up.

Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker

Wiley Online Library

Workbook for Goal-setting and Evidence-based Strategies for Success

90 page workbook that breaks down how to effectively set and reach goals

Caroline Adams Miller, MAPP

Whole Being Institute

The F Word That Is Key for Physical and Relational Well-Being

VIA Institute on Character definition of forgiveness. What it means to forgive another does not necessarily mean condoning their actions. Physical and mental benefits for the forgiver

Suzie Pileggi Pawalski, MAPP; James Pawalski, Ph.D.

Future Thought and Behaviour Change (2012)

Fantasy about the future doesn't correlate with increased success. Whereas clear expectations of the future do correlate with success.

Gabriele Oettingen

Taylor and Francis Online

Reflecting on 30 Years of Forgiveness Science

A look at the different ways in which forgiveness has been studied over the last 3 decades.

Robert Enright Ph.D

3 Websites to Help you Find Volunteer Opportunities

Short blog discussing the merits of 3 websites that can help you find meaningful volunteer opportunities near you.

Jonothan Goldford

Helping People, Changing Lives: 3 Health Benefits of Volunteering

Discusses the positive health and mental benefits that can be caused by volunteering your time to help others.

Angela Thoreson, L.I.C.S.W.

Comparing the Content of Sleep Paralysis and Dream Reports (2002)

Paper comparing the reported sensations of Sleep Paralysis and what is called the Dream Norm, or normative dream content previously collected. This study and others show significant differences between normal dream events and occurrences of sleep paralysis.

Jennifer D. Parker, Susan J. Blackmore

Association for the Study of Dreams

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations during Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare (1999)

An in-depth explanation of the biological mechanisms surrounding our bodies and sleep that are active during dream states and sleep paralysis

J. Allen Cheyne, Steve D. Rueffer, Ian R. Newby-Clark

Semantic Scholar

Sleeping with Half a Brain

Explanation of the biological functions of the human brain that cause the "first night effect", or difficulty sleeping in unfamiliar places.

Christof Koch

Definition of the Word "Jouska"

Definition of the word Jouska A hypothetical conversation that you compulsively play out in your head—a crisp analysis, a cathartic dialogue, a devastating comeback—which serves as a kind of psychological batting cage where you can connect more deeply with people than in the small ball of everyday life, which is a frustratingly cautious game of change-up pitches, sacrifice bunts, and intentional walks.

John Koenig

The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows

Words you may or may not know, that express nuianced feelings

John Koenig

An FBI Analyst's 6 Steps for Predicting People's Behavior

Predicting and anticipating the behavior of others based on some key factors

Robin Dreeke

Self-Esteem or Other-Esteem?

Where do you look for indications of your self-worth? Does it come from external inputs or from within?

Mel Schwartz L.C.S.W.

Beyond Willpower: Strategies for Reducing Failures of Self-Control (2018)

A meta-analysis of strategies to achieve goals and reduce failures

Angela L. Duckworth, Katherine L. Milkman, David Laibson

Psychological Science in the Public Interest

Social Anxiety in Online and Real-Life Interaction and Their Associated Factors (2012)

An in depth study on the relation between depression, internet addiction and social anxiety. Why the internet may be the best tool to reach and help people with severe social anxiety.

Ju-Yu Yen, M.D.; Cheng-Fang Yen, M.D., Ph.D.; Cheng-Sheng Chen, M.D.; Peng-Wei Wang, M.D.; Yi-Hsin Chang, M.S.; Chih-Hung Ko, M.D.

National Center for Biotechnology Information

How to Not Be Eaten by Lions

An explanation of why we fear public speaking that goes all the way back to our tribal heritage. Displeasing the group could have dire, real-world consequences.

Darren Menabney

Why Are We Scared of Public Speaking?

A look into the reason why we fear public speaking and its effects on our mind and body.

Theo Tsaousides Ph.D.

Social Anxiety and Internet Use: What We Know

An overview of 26 years worth of studies on the socially anxious and their habits surrounding internet usage.

Jennifer Golbeck Ph.D.

Pay Off Debt: Tools and Tips

Explanation of different strategies for paying off debt. Payoff calculator and free debt tracker.

Nerd Wallet

9 Ways to Pay Off Debt

Several different strategies for paying off debt.

Lyle Daly

How to Build Credit

A brief overview of 5 ways that you can build credit when you do not have any credit history.

Erin El Issa, Bev O'Shea

How to Build Credit from Scratch

A look into some different methods for building credit. Free accounts available that help you track your credit score.

Louis DeNicola

5 Things to Know About Predatory Lending

How to spot predatory lenders. How to calculate interest rates that are designed to be confusing. Alternatives to small dollar, high interest loans.

Jennifer Brozic

The Hedonic Treadmill

Basic explanation of the Hedonic Treadmill and its effects on our lives.

Psychology Today Staff

A Tripartite Taxonomy of Character: Evidence for Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Intellectual Competencies in Children (2016)

Interpersonal (interpersonal self-control, gratitude, social intelligence), intellectual (zest, curiosity), and intrapersonal (academic self-control, grit) are critical skills

Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L. Duckworth

Contemporary Educational Psychology

The Hedonic Treadmill - Are We Forever Chasing Rainbows?

Overview of the Hedonic Treadmill, what contributes to our overall happiness and ways to improve your baseline happiness level.

Seph Fontane Pennock BBA

The Promise of Intentional Activity

Excerpt from "The How of Happiness"

Sonja Lyubomirsky

7 Habits that Seem Lazy (But Actually Let You Get More Done)

A look at some commonly accepted and commonly condemned work practices and how they actually play out.

Scott H. Young

Laziness Does Not Exist

A professor's examination of behaviors commonly attributed to laziness such as procrastination. They argue that there are underlying barriers and life situations that, if understood, then one can see that people are not lazy, they just need patience and understanding.

Devon Price

The Pomodoro Technique

Set "productivity windows", increments of time that you will work on a given project/subject. Then move onto another subject. Breaking things up into smaller bits of focused time can aid against burnout.

Francesco Cirillo

Exercising for Better Sleep

"We have solid evidence that exercise does, in fact, help you fall asleep more quickly and improves sleep quality." - Charlene Gamaldo, M.D. At least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise may yield sleep benefits the same night.

Johns Hopkins Medicine

3 Effective Visualization Techniques to Change Your Life

Using visualization to simulate preferred outcomes. Imagine accomplishing your goal and the steps needed to get there in as much detail as you can. Create an emotional connection to the outcome.

Jennice Vilhauer Ph.D.

The Neuroscience of Patience

We are more likely to remain patient when we believe that the wait will be worth it. Serotonin's effect on patience.

Christopher Bergland

Learning to Be Assertive -- Part 1

Examples of sometimes in life where you can benefit from being assertive. A look into one patient's efforts to be more assertive in their personal and professional life.

Robert London M.D.

Learning to Be Assertive -- Part 2

Explanation of guided imagery and systematic desensitization to address stressors that lead to lack of assertiveness. Work with a therapist is recommended while some techniques may be practiced on one's own.

Robert London M.D.

Teaching Personal Initiative Beats Traditional Training in Boosting Small Business in West Africa (2017)

Many lower-income people in developing countries do not receive a wage but instead are self-employed in small firms of fewer than five workers. Helping entrepreneurs to grow small businesses by teaching them formal business skills has yielded mixed results. Campos et al. show that teaching entrepreneurial skills to the self-employed works much better in terms of increasing both sales and profits. The entrepreneurial training relies on psychological mechanisms that enhance personal initiative.

Francisco Campos, Michael Frese, Markus Goldstein, Leonardo Iacovone, Hillary C. Johnson, David McKenzie, Mona Mensmann

Science Online

How to Be Assertive Not Aggressive

Focusing on workplace dynamics. Using emotional intelligence and poise to avoid acting aggressively.

Lynn Taylor

Being Assertive: Reduce Stress, Communicate Better

A look at different styles of communication. Learn to examine your communication style and how to change it. Being assertive has many positive health and social benefits.

Mayo Clinic Staff

Passive-Aggressive Behavior and Leadership Styles in Organizations (2007)

Study to determine if, and to what degree, management styles can predict or cause passive aggressive behavior amongst employees.

Nora J. Johnson, Thomas Klee

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies

The Key to Overcoming Insecurity

Optimism plays a huge role in one's feelings of security. Optimism is a state, not a trait. Adopting an optimistic viewpoint can boost self-confidence in difficult situations.

Susan Krauss Whitbourne Ph. D.

Intermittent Fasting: Surprising Update

Benefits of time restricted eating are far ranging. From weight loss to lowered blood pressure and improved insulin sensitivity. *Many links to published papers

Harvard Health Publishing Staff; Monique Tello, MD, MPH

Not So Fast: Pros and Cons of the Newest Diet Trend (2017)

Questioning the benefits and long term sustainability of intermittent fasting diets. Weight loss with IF looks to be similar to any other calorie restrictive diet but may raise cortisol levels due to the extreme nature of some approaches.

Harvard Health Publishing Staff

Challenging Negative Self-Talk

Learning to recognize your feelings in times of stress can lead to better awareness of negative self-talk. Some examples of questions that you can ask yourself that challenge your negative perception and interpretation of events.

Andrea Rice; Kendra Kubala, PsyD

How Writing Things Down Can Change Your Life

A life coach's recommendations on what and when we should write. Benefits include clearing your mind, processing and recording emotions, and committing to goals.

Hannah Braime

Keystone Habits: The Simple Way to Improve All Aspects of Your Life

Explanation of Keystone habits and the cascading effect that they have on improving other areas of our lives. Reference to "The Power of Habit", by Charles Duhigg

James Clear

The Power of Habit

A book that takes an in depth look at habits and how their power can be harnessed for change. Many habits are interlinked and focusing on one can have positive effects on others.

Charles Duhigg

7 Tips to Create Healthy Boundaries with Others

Take responsibility for yourself and cultivate a healthy respect for yourself

Abigail Brenner M.D.

Positive Self-Statements - Power for Some, Peril for Others (2009)

Despite the common wisdom, self-affirming statements may actually not be helpful for those with low self-esteem. A study showed that repeating positive self-statements actually caused people with low self-esteem to feel worse. People with high self-esteem showed some benefits from repeating these statements, but not to a significant degree.

Joanne V. Wood, W.Q. Elaine Perunovic, John W. Lee

Association for Psychological Science

Social Judgment Theory

An overview of Social Judgment Theory (SJT) which was proposed in the early 60's by Carolyn and Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland. How we categorize attitudes about issues and even ourselves based on our previously held viewpoints or beliefs.

Dr. Joe Kiff

Reading Others’ Comments and Public Opinion Poll Results on Social Media: Social Judgment and Spiral of Empowerment (2016)

Study examining Social Judgment Theory and The Spiral of Silence and their effects on the attitudes of participants in social media. People that already have a strong feeling or position on a subject are more likely to post about those feelings especially if they believe that their opinion is the same as the majority.

Moon J. Lee, Jung Won Chun


Why Some People Have a Lack of Empathy (And How to Deal with Them)

How to recognize the behaviors of people without empathy. Explanation of the kind of circumstances that can cause someone to lack empathy, and how to negotiate relationships with them.

Patricia Young

Locus of Control and Your Life

Explanation of Julian Rotter's "Locus of Control", internal vs. external. Internal means that you believe that your actions and choices effect what happens in your life, external means that you think that luck and external variables are why things happen.

Kendra Cherry, Karen Cilli

Cultivating an Internal Locus of Control — and Why It’s Crucial

3 ways to shift your Locus of Control from external to internal.

Margarita Tartakovsky, M.S.; Scientific Advisory Board

How to Develop an Internal Locus of Control

Examples of ways that you can strengthen your internal locus of control.

Elizabeth Scott, MS; Rachel Goldman, PhD, FTOS

How to Work with an Accountability Partner to Conquer Your Personal Goals - 5 Steps to Succeed with an Accountability Partner

Suggestions on how to find an accountability partner and examples of how to manage that relationship.

S.J. Scott

When Willpower Isn't Enough

Freakonomics podcast about the Angela Duckworth "Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling" study

Stephen J. Dubner, Greg Rosalsky, Katy Milkman (Guest)

Stop Idolizing Hustle Culture And Do This Instead

An indictment of hustle culture. Employees and entrepreneurs alike need to take breaks and time off to preserve mental health and avoid burnout.

Celinne Da Costa

10 Ways to Overcome Fear of Missing Out (FOMO)

Prioritize the process and don't try to collect symbolic achievements. Do it for yourself not the envy of others.

Linda Bloom, Charlie Bloom

Why Hustle Culture Might Be Toxic to Your Business

The dangers and pitfalls of promoting hustle culture.

John Boitnott

How Do Student Loans Affect Your Credit Score?

Explanation of different situations that can come up with student loans. How they affect your credit. What your options are.

Teddy Nykiel, Bev O'Shea

Correspondence Bias

4 ways that people can introduce correspondence bias into a situation causing them to misjudge someone's personality. People tend to consider environmental factors more when explaining their own behavior than when they are observing someone else's. Also called "fundamental attribution error".


Cutting Calories Won't Solve Your Weight Issues – Do This Instead

No scientific studies have shown that calorie reduction is a long-term solution for weight loss. Change your body set weight (BSW) which regulates internal factors to keep you at a particular weight. All calories are not created equal.

Dr. Jason Fung, MD; Dr. Bret Scher, MD

Here's What Happens to Your Body When You're Dehydrated

Common effects of dehydration from headache to fainting. Institute of Medicine's official recommendation for daily water intake. (2004)

Toby Mündel

Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement (1966)

Full paper that summarizes Julian Rotter's experiments concerning the differences in people's perception of internal or external control over outcome. Skill versus Chance. Origin of Locus of Control.

Julian B. Rotter

American Psychological Association

Reward Probability and Timing Uncertainty Alter the Effect of Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons on Patience (2018)

The effects of serotonin on patience are tested. Serotonin has an effect on increasing patience when waiting times are unpredictable.

Katsuhiko Miyazaki, Kayoko W. Miyazaki, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tomoki Tokuda, Kenji F. Tanaka, Kenji Doya

Nature Communications

Lifetime Prevalence Rates of Sleep Paralysis: A Systematic Review (2011)

Statistics of lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis.

Brian A. Sharpless, Jacques P. Barber


The Double-Edged Sword of the Shorter Workweek

When given the opportunity to work less hours for the same pay, what do people use that extra time for? Some suggest that it would be useful to nudge people in the direction of social involvement such as volunteering.

Christine Ro

8 Reasons Why It's so Hard to Really Change Your Behavior

Breakdown of the most common reasons that people find it difficult to create lasting change in their behavior.

David DiSalvo

The Habit Replacement Loop

Replace a bad habit with a good one using CBT

Bernard J. Luskin, Ed.D., LMFT

Self Care and Professional Quality of Life: Predictive Factors Among Master of Social Work (MSW) Practitioners (2015)

Self-care is critical to relieving job-related stress

Kori R. Bloomquist, Leila Wood, Kristin Friedmeyer-Trainor, Hea-Won Kim

Advances in Social Work

In Defense of a Good Night's Sleep

Sleep's effect on the mind and body. Sleep is a powerful contributor to self-control and willpower.

Kelly McGonigal Ph.D.

How to Break the Sugar Habit - And Help Your Health in the Process

Don't try to cut sugars out all at once. Improve your diet with healthy foods like lean proteins and a variety of vegetables. Then your body will start to reduce sugar cravings.

Harvard Health Publishing

Is Eating Behavior Manipulated by the Gastrointestinal Microbiota? Evolutionary Pressures and Potential Mechanisms (2014)

Relationship between microorganisms in the gut and eating behavior. Obesity may be a contagious disease. Cohabitators can transmit obesity-causing microbes to each other.

Joe Alcock, Carlo C. Maley, C Athena Aktipis

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Maintenance of Lost Weight and Long-Term Management of Obesity (2018)

There are many different diets and programs that can help someone to lose weight, but keeping that weight off in the long term is more difficult. This paper explains the biological mechanisms that make this a reality and discusses some alternative treatment methods that are not commonly employed. Realistic goal setting, positive framing, focusing on positive health and biomarkers instead of amount of weight lost or body fat %.

Kevin D. Hall Ph.D.; Scott Kahan M.D., MPH

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Why do Dieters Succeed or Fail? The Answers Have Little to do With Food

Talking to 4 participants in a DIETFITS study about the merits of low-fat vs. low-carb (but not caloric restrictive) diets who had drastically different outcomes. While the overall study showed no significant differences between the diets, some people fared better than others. Other factors in their lives such as their jobs or the failing health of loved ones seemed to make a bigger impact than the type of diet that they chose.

Julia Belluz

Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion (2018)

DIETFITS randomized clinical trial of 609 overweight adults testing healthy low-fat or healthy low-carb diets over 12 months. No significant differences were found. Caloric restriction was not a part of this trial, but dietary education was provided to participants.

Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; John F. Trepanowski, PhD; Liana C. Del Gobbo, PhD; Michelle E. Hauser, MD; Joseph Rigdon, PhD; John P. A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc; Manisha Desai, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD

JAMA Network

Five Common Myths About Grief

Common misconceptions about grief and its effects on people.

Marilyn A. Menoza Ph.D.

Why the Five Stages of Grief Are Wrong

How the well-known, Kubler-Ross 5 stages of grief have been misunderstood. Assuming that the 5 stages is a rigid, proven process can lead people to feel as if they are grieving incorrectly.

David B. Feldman Ph.D.

How to Overcome Grief’s Health-Damaging Effects

Examination and explanation of common mental and physical ailments associated with grief.

Harvard Health Publishing

Physical, Psychological, and Occupational Consequences of Job Burnout: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies (2017)

An examination of several studies focused on the physical and mental health effects of job-related burnout.

Denise Albieri Jodas Salvagioni, Francine Nesello Melanda, Arthur Eumann Mesas, Alberto Durán González, Flávia Lopes Gabani, Selma Maffei de Andrade

Plos One

Self Care Through Self-Compassion: A Balm for Burnout (2017)

Self-compassion is critical for self care in counselors

Susannah C. Coaston

The Professional Counselor

Box Breathing Techniques and Benefits

Explanation of technique and benefits, as well as recommendations for breathing apps.

Elizabeth Scott, MS

Interactions of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Mechanisms in Human Visual Cortex (2011)

Clutter and disorganization can compete for our brain's attention by overloading the visual cortex, this can cause us to be distracted from the tasks that we are trying to accomplish.

Stephanie McMains, Sabine Kastner

The Journal of Neuroscience

Self-Compassion, Wellbeing, and Happiness (2014)

Evidence of self-compassion as a source of wellbeing. Self-esteem is primarily correlated with successes, where self-compassion can be comforting even in trying times or in the face of failure.

Kristin D. Neff, Andrew P. Costigan

Psychologie in Österreich (Psychology in Austria)

The Influence of Self-Compassion on Emotional Well-Being Among Early and Older Adolescent Males and Females (2015)

A study that examines self-compassion in adolescents. Older female adolescents older male adolescents and also younger adolescents regardless of gender. Explanation of the "imagined audience" and "personal fable" experiences that are common amongst developing middle school and high school children.

Karen Bluth, Priscilla W. Blanton

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Self-Compassion: Conceptualizations, Correlates, & Interventions (2011)

Self-compassion involves three concepts which are: (a) being kind and understanding toward oneself rather than being self-critical, (b) seeing one’s fallibility as part of the larger human condition and experience rather than as isolating, and (c) holding one’s painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than avoiding them or overidentifying with them. Self-compassion is different from other "self-themes" such as, self-esteem or self-care.

Laura K. Barnard, John F. Curry

American Psychological Association

The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem (2004)

Pursuing high-self esteem may actually have detrimental effects depending on how you go about it. An obsession with high self-esteem can cause people to deny, avoid or react poorly to situations and events that could invalidate their self-worth. High self-esteem feels good and low self-esteem feels bad, but there seems to be no evidence that high self-esteem increases someone's achievement or performance and that low self-esteem leads to destructive behavior.

Jennifer Crocker, Lora E. Park

American Psychological Association

The Relationship Between Dispositional Gratitude and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress and Mental Health (2018)

A significant relationship can be shown between gratitude and stress and their effect on mental health as well as quality of life.

Ahmad Valikhani, Fatemeh Ahmadnia, Alma Karimi, Paul J. Mills


The Relationship Between Quality of Sleep and Emotional Empathy (2017)

Study tested healthy undergrads, in an fMRI sleep deprived or insomniac subjects could easily recognize people experiencing fear or sadness in pictures. But, they did not register an emotional response. Lack of sleep can cause lack of an empathetic response to others.

Veronica Guadagni, Ford Burles, Silvana Valera, Emeleigh Hardwicke-Brown, Michele Ferrara, Tavis Campbell, and Giuseppe Iaria

Journal of Psychophysiology

Comparing Cognitive Defusion and Cognitive Restructuring Delivered Through a Mobile App for Individuals High in Self-Criticism (2018)

An experiment that tests the difference in efficacy of Cognitive Restructuring (changing negative thoughts to positive ones) and Cognitive Defusion (invalidating negative thoughts), as they relate to CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig

Utah State University, Department of Psychology

Using Brief Cognitive Restructuring and Cognitive Defusion Techniques to Cope With Negative Thoughts (2015)

Experiment suggesting that the CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) practices of cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion are both more effective at mitigating the effects of negative thoughts than the control group. Cognitive Defusion performed better than cognitive restructuring and the control group.

Andeas Larsson, Nic Hooper, Lisa A. Osborne, Paul Bennett, Louise McHugh

Sage Journal

Self-Healing and Self Care for Nurses (2016)

Teaching nurses self-care increases their effectiveness and positive outcomes for patients.

Patricia J Crane and Suzanne F Ward

Semantic Scholar

The Power of a Positive No (2016)

How to say "no" in effective and positive ways that protect your interests and feelings or needs, as well as those of the other participant. Yes! No. Yes?

William Ury

Oxford Leadership

Setting, Elaborating, and Reflecting on Personal Goals Improves Academic Performance (2010)

Goal setting activities tested among university students amounted to higher GPAs and improved academic success.

Dominique Morisano, Jacob B. Hirsh, Jordan B. Peterson, Robert O. Pihl, Bruce M. Shore

American Psychological Association

Mental Imagery and Intrapersonal Communication: A Review of Research on Imagined Interactions (IIs) and Current Developments (2001)

An in depth look into the history of the study of "imagined interactions" or simulated conversations in a subjects mind.

James Honneycutt, Sherry Ford


The Role of Taking Conflict Personally in Imagined Interactions about Conflict (2010)

Meta analysis of "imagined Interactions" studies. The difference between, and the usefulness of proactive and retroactive imagined conflict in interpersonal relationships. Explanation of "rumination"

Kelly P. Wallenfelsz, Dale Hample

Taylor & Francis Online

A Lewinian Perspective on Taking Conflict Personally: Revision, Refinement, and Validation of the Instrument (1995)

A meta analysis of research into taking conflict personally (TCP) based on Lewin's 1951 Field Theory, which resulted in Lewin being referred to as the "father of psychology."

Dale Hample, Judith M. Dallinger


Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future (2003)

An examination of Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) research and clinical approaches to it's application.

Jon Kabat-Zinn

American Psychological Association

New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory (2006)

An overview of advances in Goal Theory. Discussion of key moderators in goal setting.

Edwin A. Locke, Gary P. Latham


Challenge Versus Threat Effects on the Goal–Performance Relationship (2000)

How a goal framed is important. People perform better with difficult tasks that are framed as challenges than if they are posed as "pass or fail." When viewed as challenge or threat, challenge appears to offer opportunity for personal growth and development of coping strategies.

Anat Drach-Zahavy, Miriam Erez


Goal Setting and Task Performance (1969-1980)

Overwhelming evidence that people given specific and challenging goals outperform those with "do your best" goals or no goals at all.

Edwin A. Locke, Karyll N. Shaw, Lise M. Saari, Gary P. Latham


Work Motivation and Satisfaction: Light at the End of the Tunnel (1990)

Small, achievable goals are satisfying but don't require someone to be very productive. Larger, difficult goals require higher levels of productivity but are less satisfying. The authors suggest a mixed approach were goals are set in a 2-tier system with smaller goals and larger ones. Also, achievement of the goal could be measured in partial success, not all-or-nothing.

Edwin A. Locke, Gary P. Latham


Therapist Empathy and Client Outcome: An Updated Meta-Analysis (2018)

Therapist empathy is a moderately strong predictor of therapy outcome

Robert Elliott, Arthur C. Bohart, Jeanne C. Watson, David Murphy

American Psychological Association

Experiences of Habit Formation: A Qualitative Study (2011)

Forming new habits can be easier when tied to current lifestyle cues. Although they dissipate when those behaviors are on hold such as on weekends or vacation, they seem to mostly return when the routine goes back to "normal."

Phillippa Lally, Jane Wardle, Benjamin Gardner

Pub Med

How are Habits Formed: Modelling Habit Formation in the Real World (2009)

It takes between 18-254 days to form a new habit depending on the person. But, the average is 66 days, or about 2 months. Also, this study showed that missing an opportunity to perform the task that was the subject of the habit forming exercise did not significantly harm the person's ability to form the habit as long as they continued to try.

Phillippa Lally, Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld, Henry W. W. Potts, Jane Wardle

Wiley Online Library

A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices (2012)

In this study a labeling system that indicated the "healthiness" of items sold in a hospital cafeteria was implemented. They placement of items was also changed making healthier choices more easily viewable and accessible. During the 3-month intervention sales of healthy items significantly increased as the less healthy items saw a drop in sales.This study suggests that there are environmental factors that can be taken into account when choice is concerned.

Anne N. Thorndike, MD, MPH; Lillian Sonnenberg, DSc, RD; Jason Riis, PhD; Susan Barraclough, MS, RD, LDN; Douglas E. Levy, PhD

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Procrastination and the Priority of Short-Term Mood Regulation: Consequences for Future Self (2013)

A meta analysis of research looking at the what factors are in play with people who tend to procrastinate. From simply losing interest in the task or seeking out something more engaging, to he stress and anxiety caused to the "future self" by previous procrastinating and the negative feelings and self-talk that can accompany it.

Fuschia Sirois,Timothy Pychyl

White Rose Research Online

Giving in to Feel Good: The Place of Emotion Regulation in the Context of General Self-Control (2000)

A look at emotional regulation, similarities and differences between emotional regulation and self-control. How it relates to procrastination and other self-indulgent, "undesirable" activities such as over-eating, alcohol use and gambling.

Dianne M. Tice, Ellen Bratslavsky

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Is Gratitude a Moral Affect? (2001)

Gratitude has 3 functions: a moral barometer, moral motivation, and moral reinforcement. Expressing gratitude essentially sets up a "pay-it-forward" mentality. Prosocial behavior is encouraged amongst all parties when gratitude is expressed.

Michael E. McCullough, Shelly D. Kilpatrick, Robert A. Emmons, David B. Larson

American Psychological Association

The Importance of Cursive Handwriting Over Typewriting for Learning in the Classroom: A High-Density EEG Study of 12-Year-Old Children and Young Adults (2020)

Writing by hand has been shown to activate more parts of the brain than simply typing. Retention of the information that is written by hand is higher than that of typed information.

Eva Ose Askvik; F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel; Audrey L. H. van der Meer

Frontiers in Psychology

Learning From the Feynman Technique

Richard Feynman was an intellectual and a physicist. He developed several methods for learning about complex subjects. He would identify what he did NOT know in order to spend time on exactly what he needed to fill the gaps in his knowledge. When learning something new, you can try and pretend that you're teaching that subject to a child, this keeps you from using big words and simplify the topic into easy to understand terms.


The Assessment of Gratitude (2019)

A meta analysis of gratitude research that examines the many benefits of gratitude interventions. There is evidence that gratitude interventions, such as daily gratitude journaling, can improve overall well being, interpersonal relationships, romantic relationships, as well as resulting in fewer health related complaints.

Robert A. Emmons, Jeffrey Froh, Rachel Rose

American Psychological Association

Outcomes of an Integrated Journaling and Mindfulness Program on a U.S. University Campus (2010)

A study at the University of Arkansas tested the effectiveness of mindfulness practice on college students that reported feeling stressed. In addition to guided meditation, visualization, focusing on breathing, and listening to music or natural sounds, they began the sessions with journaling. The researchers encouraged the participants to write about gratitude on "good" days and reappraisal, or to examine their feelings about events that upset them and then attempt to change their feelings afterward, on "bad" days.

Irina Khramtsova, Patricia Glascock


Stats for Oral and Dental Health in the U.S. (2015-2018)

Percent of children aged 5-19 years with untreated dental caries (cavities): 18.6% (2011-2014) Percent of adults aged 20-44 with untreated dental caries (cavities): 31.6% (2011-2014)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses (2005)

In this 2005 study researchers showed that among 85 participants between the ages of 17-33, the ones who were asked to affirm their personal values before a lab stress test, produced fewer chemicals that are associated with stress than the participants who were the control group. This suggests that self-affirmation behavior can decrease people's stress level when faced with difficult or challenging situations. The study also indicated that a person's self-esteem level or feelings of self-worth were a factor in the affirmation group. Those with a lower self-esteem did not benefit from the self-affirmation exercise as much as the ones with higher levels of self-esteem. However there are other studies that refute this claim.

J. David Creswell, William T. Welch, Shelley E. Taylor, David K. Sherman, Tara L. Gruenewald, Traci Mann

American Psychological Association

Experimental Manipulations of Self-Affirmation: A Systematic Review (2007)

Meta-analysis of research dealing with self-affirmation.

Amy McQueen, William M. P. Klein

Taylor & Francis Online

Maintaining One’s Self-Image Vis-`a-Vis Others: The Role of Self-Affirmation in the Social Evaluation of the Self (2001)

These studies showed that self-affirming behavior causes people to handle interpersonal threats in social interactions better. The effects were even noted in the participants that had lower self-esteem. Some of our self-concept, what we think about ourselves, comes from how we perceive we are viewed by others.

Steven J. Spencer, Steven Fein, Christine D. Lomore

American Psychological Association

Positive Reframing and Examining the Evidence

Description of 2 types we can attempt "reappraisal" of situations. Using these tools we can question the negativity that we perceive in situations and find other, more positive ways to think about them.

Stress & Development Lab

With Mindfulness, Life's in the Moment

Very readable article that touches on the history of scientific research on mindfulness as well as the many benefits, mentally and physically, that have been attributed to it. Lots of links if you want to do further reading.

Liz Mineo

A Theory of Goal Setting & Task Performance (1991)

Meta analysis of studies focused on goal setting mechanisms and outcomes. Goal setting is minimally effective without feedback. Feedback itself has no motivating factors, but can be used to moderate higher performance and improvements. People often set improvement goals when given feedback about thier past performane. Individuals with high self-efficacy, a high level of confidence in their abilities to reach a given goal, tend to set higher goals than those with a lower level of self-efficacy. But higher goals tend to yield less self satisfaction, where lower set goals tend to yield higher levels of self satisfaction. In the real world though, higher goals often have higher rewards such as advancement in an organization or a financial insentive.

Edwin A. Locke, Gary P. Latham


Investigation of the Self-Talk of Elite Junior Tennis Players in a Competitive Setting (2018)

Meta-analysis of research dealing with self-talk and it's relevance in athletic performance. Great definition and descriptions of different forms of self-talk.

Veronique Boudreault, Christiane Trottier, Martin D. Provencher


The Effects of Motivational Self-Talk on Competitive Anxiety and Self-Compassion: A Brief Training Program among Competitive Swimmers (2017)

After 3 self-talk training sessions competetive swimmers reported a reduction in levels of competative anxiety and increased self-compassion. No such changes were reported by the control group which received no self-talk instruction.

Styliani Kryiaki Georgakaki, Eirini Karakasidou

Scientific Research

Ketogenic Diet (2021)

Appropriately tailored diet regimens for weight reduction can help manage the obesity epidemic to some extent. One diet regimen that has proven to be very effective for rapid weight loss is a very-low-carbohydrate and high-fat ketogenic diet. This activity reviews the evaluation and considerations for the ketogenic diet and discusses the role of the interprofessional team in educating patients on the risks and benefits of this diet.

Wajeed Masood, Pavan Annamaraju, Kalyan R. Uppaluri

National Library of Medicine

Psychology Is WEIRD Western college students are not the best representatives of human emotion, behavior, and sexuality.

WEIRD psycology. This is information gleened primarily from Western Educated, from Industrialized, Rich, Areas that have a Democratic form of govornment. This represents the sort of people who are likely to be a part of an academic study by proximity to it's being performed. This group, while being used as a case study and often as a control group, may not represent the actual diversity of a population in a given environment.


Dental Health Behaviors, Dentition, and Mortality in the Elderly: The Leisure World Cohort Study (2011)

Toothbrushing at night before bed, using dental floss everyday, and visiting the dentist were significant risk factors for longevity. Never brushing at night increased risk 20–35% compared with brushing everyday. Never flossing increased risk 30% compared with flossing everyday. Not seeing a dentist within the last 12 months increased risk 30–50% compared with seeing a dentist two or more times.

Annlia Paganini-Hill, Stuart C. White, Kathryn A. Atchison

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Which Type of Meditation Is Right for Me?

A brief introduction to 9 popular meditation types. Get an idea of which types you might like to try in order to decide which stlye is best for you.

Holly J. Bertone CNHP, PMP and Crystal Hoshaw

How Gratitude Helps Your Friendships Grow

Gratitude is a key factor in trust-building and it aids in strengthening and maintaining relationships. Gratitude seems to be a double-edged sword when it comes to the benefits. Those who express gratitude feel a prosocial benefit as well as those who are the recipients of said gratitude.


Greater Good Magazine

Want to feel more connected? Practice empathy

A definition of empathy and 3 different methods to practice it.

Julie Corliss

Harvard Health Publishing

Oral Health in Relation to All-Cause Mortality: The IPC Cohort Study (2017)

All-cause mortality risk were raised with dental plaque, gingival inflammation, >10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units <5. All-cancer mortality was positively associated with dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality were also positively associated with high dental plaque (HR = 3.30, [95% CI: 1.76–6.17]), high gingival inflammation (HR = 2.86, [95% CI: 1.71–4.79]), >10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40–3.82]) and functional masticatory units <5 (HR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.55–3.73]). Moreover, when ≥3 oral diseases were accumulated in the model, the risk increased for all-cause mortality (HR = 3.39, [95% CI: 2.51–5.42]), all-cancer mortality (HR = 3.59, [95% CI: 1.23–10.05]) and non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality (HR = 4.71, [95% CI: 1.74–12.7]). The present study indicates a positive linear association between oral health and mortality.

Margaux Adolph, Christelle Darnaud, Frédérique Thomas, Bruno Pannier, Nicolas Danchin, G. David Batty, Philippe Boucharda

National Center for Biotechnology Information

The Population Health Benefits Of A Healthy Lifestyle: Life Expectancy Increased And Onset Of Disability Delayed (2017)

Maintaining a normal weight, not smoking, and drinking alcohol at moderate levels are factors that add healthy years to life

Neil Mehta, Mikko Myrskylä

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Association of Efficacy of Resistance Exercise Training With Depressive Symptoms (2018)

Resistance exercise training significantly reduced depressive symptoms among adults regardless of health status, total prescribed volume of RET, or significant improvements in strength.

Brett R. Gordon, MSc; Cillian P. McDowell, BSc; Mats Hallgren, PhD; Jacob D. Meyer, PhD; Mark Lyons, PhD; Matthew P. Herring, PhD

JAMA Psychiatry

Exercise as a Treatment for Depression: A Meta-Analysis (2016)

Physical exercise is an effective treatment for unipolar depression. Exercise compares favorably to no intervention and usual care for depression. Exercise is comparable to psychotherapy and antidepressants for depression. Exercise could be a viable adjunct and augmentation to antidepressants for depression. Exercise may serve as an alternative to established treatments and waiting list.

Siri Kvama, Catrine Lykkedrang Kleppe, Inger Hilde Nordhus, Anders Hovland

Elsevier, Journal of Affective Disorders

How to Break a Bad Habit and Replace It With a Good One

Don't "break" a bad habit, return to when you didn't have it.

James Clear

Effect of Exercise on Depression Severity in Older People: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (2018)

For older people who present with clinically meaningful symptoms of depression, prescribing structured exercise tailored to individual ability will reduce depression severity.

Christopher Bridle, Kathleen Spanjers, Shilpa Patel, Nicola M. Atherton, Sarah E. Lamb

Cambridge University Press

Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults (2016)

Has been shown to lower risk of cancer.

Steven C. Moore, PhD, MPH; I-Min Lee, MBBS, ScD; Elisabete Weiderpass, PhD; Peter T. Campbell, PhD; Joshua N. Sampson, PhD; Cari M. Kitahara, PhD; Sarah K. Keadle, PhD, MPH; Hannah Arem, PhD; Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, DPhil; Patricia Hartge, ScD; Hans-Olov Adami, MD, PhD; Cindy K. Blair, PhD; Kristin B. Borch, PhD; Eric Boyd, BS; David P. Check, BS; Agnès Fournier, PhD; Neal D. Freedman, PhD; Marc Gunter, PhD; Mattias Johannson, PhD; Kay-Tee Khaw, MD, MsC, PhD; Martha S. Linet, MD; Nicola Orsini, PhD; Yikyung Park, ScD; Elio Riboli, MD; Kim Robien, PhD; Catherine Schairer, PhD; Howard Sesso, ScD, MPH; Michael Spriggs, BS; Roy Van Dusen, MS; Alicja Wolk, DMSc; Charles E. Matthews, PhD; Alpa V. Patel, PhD

JAMA Internal Medicine

Food Neophobia Associates with Poorer Dietary Quality, Metabolic Risk Factors, and Increased Disease Outcome Risk in Population-Based Cohorts in a Metabolomics Study (2019)

Food neophobia associates with poorer dietary quality, metabolic risk factors, and increased disease outcome risk in population-based cohorts in a metabolomics study. Trying new foods in critical to building a healthy diet. There is a hereditary components to it.

Heikki V Sarin, Nele Taba, Krista Fischer, Tonu Esko, Noora Kanerva, Leena Moilanen, Juha Saltevo, Anni Joensuu, Katja Borodulin, Satu Männistö, Kati Kristiansson, Markus Perola

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Healthy Diet can Ease Symptoms of Depression (2019)

An analysis of data from almost 46,000 people has found that weight loss, nutrient boosting and fat reduction diets can all reduce the symptoms of depression. The study found that all types of dietary improvement appeared to have equal effects on mental health, with weight-loss, fat reduction or nutrient-improving diets all having similar benefits for depressive symptoms. "Instead, just making simple changes is equally beneficial for mental health. In particular, eating more nutrient-dense meals which are high in fibre and vegetables, while cutting back on fast-foods and refined sugars appears to be sufficient for avoiding the potentially negative psychological effects of a 'junk food' diet. Studies examined with female samples showed even greater benefits from dietary interventions for symptoms of both depression and anxiety.

Joseph Firth, PhD; Wolfgang Marx, PhD; Sarah Dash, PhD; Rebekah Carney, PhD; Scott B. Teasdale, PhD; Marco Solmi, MD; Brendon Stubbs, PhD; Felipe B. Schuch, PhD; André F. Carvalho, MD; Felice Jacka, PhD; Jerome Sarris, PhD


Sleeping for Longer Leads to a Healthier Diet (2018)

Sleep extension is a feasible lifestyle intervention in free-living adults who are habitually short sleepers: a potential strategy for decreasing intake of free sugars? A randomized controlled pilot study. Sleeping for longer each night is a simple lifestyle intervention that could help reduce intake of sugary foods and lead to a generally healthier diet, according to a King's College London study.

Haya K Al Khatib, Wendy L Hall, Alice Creedon, Emily Ooi, Tala Masri, Laura McGowan, Scott V Harding, Julia Darzi, Gerda K Pot


Later Circadian Timing of Food Intake is Associated with Increased Body Fat (2017)

These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition.

Andrew W McHill, Andrew JK Phillips, Charles A Czeisler, Leigh Keating, Karen Yee, Laura K Barger, Marta Garaulet, Frank AJL Scheer, Elizabeth B Klerman

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Moderate Consumption of Fats and Carbohydrates Best for Health (2017)

Research with more than 135,000 people across five continents has shown that a diet which includes a moderate intake of fat and fruits and vegetables, and avoidance of high carbohydrates, is associated with lower risk of death.

Victoria Miller, BSc; Andrew Mente, PhD; Mahshid Dehghan, PhD; Sumathy Rangarajan, MSc; Xiaohe Zhang, MSc; Sumathi Swaminathan, PhD; Gilles Dagenais, MD; Prof Rajeev Gupta, PhD; Prof Viswanathan Mohan, MD; Prof Scott Lear, PhD; Shrikant I Bangdiwala, PhD; Aletta E Schutte, PhD; Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, PhD; Prof Alvaro Avezum, MD; Yuksel Altuntas, PhD; Khalid Yusoff, MBBS; Noorhassim Ismail, MD; Nasheeta Peer, PhD; Jephat Chifamba, DPhil; Rafael Diaz, MD; Omar Rahman, MD; Noushin Mohammadifard, PhD; Fernando Lana, MD; Katarzyna Zatonska, MD; Prof Andreas Wielgosz, MD; Afzalhussein Yusufali, MD; Romaina Iqbal, PhD; Prof Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, MD; Rasha Khatib, PhD; Prof Annika Rosengren, MD; Prof V Raman Kutty, MD; Prof Wei Li, PhD; Jiankang Liu, MSc; Xiaoyun Liu, PhD; Lu Yin, PhD; Prof Koon Teo, MD; Prof Sonia Anand, MD; Prof Salim Yusuf, DPhil; on behalf of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators


Obese People can Maintain Stable Weight Loss (2016)

This study shows that if an overweight person is able to maintain an initial weight loss – in this case for a year – the body will eventually ‘accept’ this new weight and thus not fight against it, as is otherwise normally the case when you are in a calorie-deficit state

Eva W Iepsen, Julie Lundgren, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Signe S Torekov


Eating Cruciferous Vegetables may Improve Breast Cancer Survival (2012)

Women who were in the highest quartiles of intake of vegetables per day had a 62 percent reduced risk of total mortality, 62 percent reduced risk of breast cancer mortality, and 35 percent reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence, compared to women with the lowest quartile of intake."

Nechuta, Xiao Ou Shu, M.D., Ph.D.; Sarah J. Nechuta, Ph.D., M.P.H.; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention


Fiber-Famished Gut Microbes Linked to Poor Health

Gut bacteria break down fiber into compounds that help immune function, lower inflammation & protect against obesity.

Katherine Harmon Courage

Procrastination 101: It's Not About Feeling Like It

Procrastination can be overcome with emotional regulation. You don't have to feel like doing it to do it. You often won't at first

Timothy A Pychyl Ph.D.

Consuming Highly Refined Carbohydrates Increases Risk of Depression (2015)

Consumption of carbohydrates increases blood sugar levels to varying degrees, depending on the type of food ingested. The more highly refined the carbohydrate, the higher its score on the glycemic index (GI) scale. The GI scale, which goes from 0-100, measures the amount of sugar found in the blood after eating. Refined foods such as white bread, white rice, and soda trigger a hormonal response in the body to reduce blood sugar levels. This response may also cause or exacerbate mood changes, fatigue and other symptoms of depression. The investigators found that progressively higher dietary GI scores and consumption of added sugars and refined grains were associated with increased risk of new-onset depression in postmenopausal women. Greater consumption of dietary fiber, whole grains, vegetables and non-juice fruits was associated with decreased risk. This suggests that dietary interventions could serve as treatments and preventive measures for depression. Further study is needed to examine the potential of this novel option for treatment and prevention, and to see if similar results are found in the broader population.

James E. Gangwisch, Lauren Hale, Lorena Garcia, Dolores Malaspina, Mark G. Opler, Martha E. Payne, Rebecca C. Rossom, Dorothy Lane

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Replacing One Serving of Sugary Drink Per Day, by Water or Unsweetened Tea or Coffee, Cuts Risk of Type 2 Diabetes (2015)

Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages. New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) indicates that for each 5% increase of a person's total energy intake provided by sweet drinks including soft drinks, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes may increase by 18%. However, the study also estimates that replacing the daily consumption of one serving of a sugary drink with either water or unsweetened tea or coffee can lower the risk of developing diabetes by between 14% and 25%.

Laura O’Connor, Fumiaki Imamura, Marleen A. H. Lentjes, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi


New MIND Diet may Significantly Protect Against Alzheimer's Disease (2015)

Daily consumption of fish and 3-4 daily servings of each of fruits and vegetables was associated with 53% lower risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Martha Clare Morris, Christy C. Tangney, Yamin Wang, Frank M. Sacks, David A. Bennett, Neelum T. Aggarwal


Sugared Soda Consumption, Cell Aging Associated in New Study (2014)

Sugar-sweetened soda consumption might promote disease independently from its role in obesity, according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging.

Cindy W. Leung, ScD; Barbara A. Laraia, PhD; Belinda L. Needham, PhD; David H. Rehkopf, ScD; Nancy E. Adler, PhD; Jue Lin, PhD; Elizabeth H. Blackburn, PhD; Elissa S. Epel, PhD


Sulforaphane Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (2014)

44 boys and men with autism between the ages of 13 and 27 took part in the study. The compound was chosen because it can help trigger a heat-shock response, a series of biological events that protect cells from stress during fevers; some people with autism have been known to see improvement in regard to repetitive behaviors, for example, during fevers. Around 80 percent of the participants had a history of experiencing the "fever effect." By week 18, roughly half of the sulforaphane participants had better social interactions, and, four weeks after the study and the sulforaphane stopped, such improvements were less apparent.

Kanwaljit Singh, Susan L. Connors, Eric A. Macklin, Kirby D. Smith, Jed W. Fahey, Paul Talalay, Andrew W. Zimmerman

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Sugar-Free and "Diet" Drinks No Better for Healthy Weight than Full Sugar Drinks (2017)

Professor Millett and colleagues outlined current evidence of the health effects of consuming ASBs. Although there was no direct evidence for a role of ASBs in weight gain, they found that there was no evidence that ASBs aid weight loss or prevent weight gain compared with the full sugar versions. In addition, the production of ASBs has negative consequences for the environment, with up to 300 litres of water required to produce a 0.5 L plastic bottle of carbonated soft drink.

Imperial College London

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Just Two Weeks of Drinking Sugary Drinks Boost Risk Factors for Heart Disease (2015)

At the beginning and end of the study, researchers used hourly blood draws to monitor the changes in the levels of lipoproteins, triglycerides and uric acid -- all known to be indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. These risk factors increased as the dose of high-fructose corn syrup increased. Even the participants who consumed the 10-percent dose exhibited increased circulating concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride compared with their concentrations at the beginning of the study.

Kimber L Stanhope, Valentina Medici, Andrew A Bremer, Vivien Lee, Hazel D Lam, Marinelle V Nunez, Guoxia X Chen, Nancy L Keim, Peter J Havel


Unhealthy Eating Habits Outpacing Healthy Eating Patterns in Most World Regions (2015)

Improvements in diet quality between 1990 and 2010 have been greatest in high-income nations, with modest reductions in the consumption of unhealthy foods and increased intake of healthy products. However, people living in many of the wealthiest regions (eg, the USA and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand) still have among the poorest quality diets in the world, because they have some of the highest consumption of unhealthy food worldwide. In contrast, some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in Asia (eg, China and India) have seen no improvement in their diet quality over the past 20 years. According to Dr Mozaffarian, "There is a particularly urgent need to focus on improving diet quality among poorer populations. If we do nothing, undernutrition will be rapidly eclipsed by obesity and non-communicable diseases, as is already being seen in India, China, and other middle-income countries."

Dr Fumiaki Imamura, PhD; Renata Micha, PhD; Shahab Khatibzadeh, MD; Saman Fahimi, MD; Peilin Shi, PhD; John Powles, MBBS; Dariush Mozaffarian, DrPH; on behalf of the Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE)


Study Links Irregular Sleep Patterns to Metabolic Disorders (2019)

Not sticking to a regular bedtime and wake up schedule—and getting different amounts of sleep each night—can put a person at higher risk for obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, high blood sugar and other metabolic disorders. In fact, for every hour of variability in time to bed and time asleep, a person may have up to a 27% greater chance of experiencing a metabolic abnormality

Tianyi Huang, Susan Redline

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Short-Term Moderate Sleep Restriction Decreases Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Adults (2016)

Short-term moderate sleep restriction reduced insulin sensitivity compared to ad libitum sleep in this group of healthy young adults.

Xuewen Wang, Julian Greer, Ryan R. Porter, Kamaljeet Kaur, Shawn D. Youngstedt

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Spiral Learning Teaching Method: Stair Stepped to Promote Learning (2011)

Learning strategy of building on foundational information. Repetition and then some more. Repeat.

Fahimeh Veladat, Fatemeh Mohammadi


Impact of Sleep Debt on Metabolic and Endocrine Function (1999)

Sleep restriction to only four hours of sleep during two or more nights reduced glucose tolerance by 40% and reduced the acute insulin response to in healthy subjects by 30%

K. Spiegel, R. Leproult, E. Van Cauter

National Center for Biotechnology Information

A Single Night of Partial Sleep Deprivation Induces Insulin Resistance in Multiple Metabolic Pathways in Healthy Subjects (2010)

Even a single night of sleep restricting healthy individuals to four-hours of sleep led to acute insulin resistance

Esther Donga, Marieke van Dijk, J. Gert van Dijk, Nienke R. Biermasz, Gert-Jan Lammers, Klaas W. van Kralingen, Eleonara P. M. Corssmit, Johannes A. Romijn

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sleep-Dependent Memory Processing (2008)

Pulling an all-nighter decreases learning capacity by 40 percent.

Matthew P. Walker

Harvard Review of Psychiatry

Sleep Loss Causes Social Withdrawal and Loneliness (2018)

Loneliness is a type of viral social contagion that is promoted by sleep loss, which was demonstrated by experiments that showed people who were sleep-deprived distanced themselves from social interactions, and were, in turn, shunned by other people.

Eti Ben Simon, Matthew P. Walker

The National Center for Biotechnology Information

The Human Emotional Brain Without Sleep — A Prefrontal Amygdala Disconnect (2017)

The amygdala, the brain's emotional center, is 60 percent more reactive after sleep deprivation due to a dampening down of prefrontal cortex function

Seung-Schik Yoo, Ninad Gujar, Peter Hu, Ferenc A. Jolesz, Matthew P. Walker


Partial Night Sleep Deprivation Reduces Natural Killer and Cellular Immune Responses in Humans (1996)

Shorter sleep duration has been shown to reduce natural killer cell activity to 70 percent of normal, which, due to the function of natural killer T cells, really suggests chronic sleep deprivation may increase cancer risk.

Michael Irwin, John McClintick, Carolyn Costlow, Melissa Fortner, Jack White, J. Christian Gillin

The Journal of The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold (2015)

People averaging less than six hours of sleep at night are four times more likely to become ill after being exposed to the flu virus

Aric A. Prather, PhD; Denise Janicki-Deverts, PhD; Martica H. Hall, PhD; Sheldon Cohen, PhD

Sleep Research Society

Impact of Insufficient Sleep on Total Daily Energy Expenditure, Food Intake, and Weight Gain (2013)

Sleep deprivation causes people to overeat more frequently and dramatically increases nighttime snacking

Rachel R. Markwald, Edward L. Melanson, Mark R. Smith, Janine Higgins, Leigh Perreault, Robert H. Eckel, Kenneth P. Wright Jr

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)

Sleep Curtailment is Accompanied by Increased Intake of Calories from Snacks (2008)

Recurrent bedtime restriction can modify the amount, composition, and distribution of human food intake, and sleeping short hours in an obesity-promoting environment may facilitate the excessive consumption of energy from snacks but not meals

Arlet V Nedeltcheva, Jennifer M Kilkus, Jacqueline Imperial, Kristen Kasza, Dale A Schoeller, Plamen D Penev

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Whole-Body Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial (2016)

A single session of whole-body hyperthermia (core body temperature was elevated to 38.5 C) produced a significant antidepressant effect in people with major depressive disorder compared to those who received a sham control. The improvements were apparent within a week of treatment and persisted for six weeks after treatment. Moreover, the fact that chronic inflammation might not only be predictive but also induce depression is suggested by studies where injection with pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-alpha have been shown to cause depressive symptoms in people. In fact, at high IFN-alpha doses, fully 50% of patients without depression will meet criteria for major depressive disorder within three months.

Clemens W Janssen, Christopher A Lowry, Matthias R Mehl, John J B Allen, Kimberly L Kelly, Danielle E Gartner, Angelica Medrano, Tommy K Begay, Kelly Rentscher, Joshua J White, Andrew Fridman, Levi J Roberts, Megan L Robbins, Kay-U Hanusch, Steven P Cole, Charles L Raison

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Perseverance Cultivates Purposefulness and Boosts Resilience

Become more resilient by focusing to a purpose. A goal keeps people "rolling with the punches" and focused on the horizon.

Christopher Bergland

Anxiety Self-Help Resources - Information Sheets, Worksheets & Workbooks

General information sheets and worksheets for dealing with anxiety

Centre for Clinical Intervention

Mental Health Statistics (2021)

Worldwide mental health statistics

Saloni Dattani, Hannah Ritchie, Max Roser

Global Change Data Lab

Advice-Giving Benefits the Person Sharing Guidance

It benefits people to give others advice or tutoring because it helps them break things down into simple concepts

Michele W. Berger

Diet and Nutrition Essential for Mental Health (2015)

Dr Sarris, an executive member of the ISNPR, believes that it is time to advocate for a more integrative approach to psychiatry, with diet and nutrition as key elements. "It is time for clinicians to consider diet and additional nutrients as part of the treating package to manage the enormous burden of mental ill health," he said.

Dr Jerome Sarris, PhD; Alan C Logan, BA; Tasnime N Akbaraly, PhD; G Paul Amminger, MD; Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, MD; Marlene P Freeman, MD; Joseph Hibbeln, MD; Yutaka Matsuoka, MD; David Mischoulon, MD; Tetsuya Mizoue, MD; Akiko Nanri, MD; Daisuke Nishi, MD; Drew Ramsey, MD; Julia J Rucklidge, PhD; Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, PhD; Andrew Scholey, PhD; Kuan-Pin Su, MD; Felice N Jacka, PhD; on behalf of The International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research


How To Be Happy – 8 Genuine Ways To Create A Happy Life

Express gratitude, cultivate optimism, experience flow, find social bonds, health, aesthetic appreciation, faith and meaningful activities

Aditya Shukla

Happy to Help? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Performing Acts of Kindness on the Well-Being of the Actor (2018)

Kindness tends to make people feel happy

Oliver Scott Curry, Lee A.Rowland, Caspar J.Van Lissa, Sally Zlotowitz, John McAlaney, Harvey Whitehouse


Pursuing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change (2005)

A person’s chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness.

Sonja Lyubomirsky, Kennon M. Sheldon, David Schkade

Review of General Psychology

Gratitude and Well-Being: A Review and Theoretical Integration (2010)

Research linking gratitude to happiness, looking at the mechanisms behind it, and discussing gratitude interventions and their impacts

Alex M. Wood, Jeffrey J. Froh, Adam W.A. Geraghty

Clinical Psychology Review

The Psychology of Change: Self-Affirmation and Social Psychological Intervention (2014)

Overcoming defensive behavior by inventorying values of self - Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time

Geoffrey L. Cohen, David K. Sherman

Semantic Scholar

Social Media, the Network Effect, and Procrastination

Social Media is designed to be "sticky" in order to make it harder to put down and thus easier to procrastinate with

Timothy A Pychyl Ph.D.

Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goal (2007)

Grit correlates very strongly to success versus intelligence and skill

Angela L. Duckworth, Christopher Peterson


Boring but Important: A Self-Transcendent Purpose for Learning Fosters Academic Self-Regulation (2014)

Find a higher purpose and boring learning will be much easier

David S. Yeager, Marlone D. Henderson, David Paunesku, Gregory M. Walton, Sidney D'Mello, Brian J. Spitzer, Angela Lee Duckworth

American Psychological Association

The Wick in the Candle of Learning (2009)

Curiosity is critical to learning. Find a link between what you need to learn and something you're interested in and explore and cultivate that curiority

Min Jeong Kang, Ming Hsu, Ian M. Krajbich, George Loewenstein, Samuel M. McClure, Joseph Tao-yi Wang, and Colin F. Camerer

Association for Psychological Science

The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance (2011)

Intelligence, effort, and curiosity as the cornerstones of learning. (a) intelligence is the single most powerful predictor of academic performance; (b) the effects of intelligence on academic performance are not mediated by personality traits; (c) intelligence, Conscientiousness (as marker of effort), and Typical Intellectual Engagement (as marker of intellectual curiosity) are direct, correlated predictors of academic performance; and (d) the additive predictive effect of the personality traits of intellectual curiosity and effort rival that the influence of intelligence

Sophie von Stumm, Benedikt Hell, and Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

National Center for Biotechnology Information

How the 4 Percent Rule Works in Retirement

A faster withdrawal rate after retirement may be available than people think

Dana Anspach, Erika Rasure, Lakshna Mehta

Personal Finance Information

A budget is essential to living within your means and saving enough to meet your long-term goals. The 50/30/20 budgeting method offers a great framework. It breaks down like this: 50% of your take-home pay or net income (after taxes, that is) goes toward living essentials, such as rent, utilities, groceries, and transport 30% is allocated to lifestyle expenses, such as dining out and shopping for clothes. 20% goes towards the future: paying down debt and saving both for retirement and for emergencies Limit Debt Use Credit Cards Wisely Monitor Your Credit Score Life Insurance Pay Off Student Loans Plan (and Save) for Retirement Maximize Tax Breaks

Will Kenton, Michael Boyle, Ariel Courage

A Beginner's Guide to Personal Finance

Creating a monthly budget, setting up savings accounts, saving for retirement, managing your debt

Ron Weber

Quality Not Quantity: Loneliness Subtypes, Psychological Trauma, and Mental Health in the U.S. Adult Population

Four loneliness classes which varied quantitatively and qualitatively: ‘low’ (52.8%), ‘social’ (8.2%), ‘emotional’ (26.6%), and ‘social and emotional’ (12.4%) loneliness. The ‘social and emotional’ class were characterised by the highest levels of psychological distress, followed by the ‘emotional’ class.

Philip Hyland, Mark Shevlin, Marylene Cloitre, Thanos Karatzias, Frédérique Vallières, Gráinne McGinty, Robert Fox, Joanna McHugh Power

Springer Link

Childhood Peer Status and the Clustering of Social, Economic, and Health-Related Circumstances in Adulthood (2014)

Using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294), four outcome profiles in adulthood were identified by means of latent class analysis: 'Average', 'Low education', 'Unemployment', and 'Social assistance recipiency and mental health problems'. Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that those with lower peer status had exceedingly higher risks of later ending up in the more adverse clusters. This association remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related and individual factors.

Ylva B. Almquista, Lars Brännström


Social Capital and Generosity: A Multilevel Analysis (2015)

Regional-level trust is associated with more volunteering and donating to charities. In addition, regional-level social capital (the combination of trust and social ties) predicts greater volunteering

Jennifer L. Glanville, Pamela Paxton, Yan Wang

Sage Journal

Prosocial Behavior: Multilevel Perspectives (2004)

Three levels of analysis of prosocial behavior: (a) the "meso" level—the study of helper-recipient dyads in the context of a specific situation; (b) the micro level—the study of the origins of prosocial tendencies and the sources of variation in these tendencies; and (c) the macro level —the study of prosocial actions that occur within the context of groups and large organizations.

Louis A. Penner, John F. Dovidio, Jane A. Piliavin, David A. Schroeder

Annual Reviews of Psychology

Development and Validation of the Short Grit Scale (Grit–S) (2009)

Developing a survey to measure grit

Angela Lee Duckworth, Patrick D. Quinn

Taylor and Francis Online

It Doesn't Hurt to Ask: Question-Asking Increases Liking (2017)

People who ask more questions, particularly follow-up questions, are better liked by their conversation partners. When people are instructed to ask more questions, they are perceived as higher in responsiveness, an interpersonal construct that captures listening, understanding, validation, and care

Karen Huang, Michael Yeomans, Alison Wood Brooks, Julia Minson, Francesca Gino

American Psychological Association

Have You Found "The One"? How Mindsets About Destiny Affect Our Romantic Relationships

Destiny mindsets cause people to overlook partners through an elimination process

Gery Karantzas

To Have and to Hold: Gratitude Promotes Relationship Maintenance in Intimate Bonds (2012)

How to make your partner feel appreciated and feel appreciated yourself.

Amie Gordon, Emily A Impett, Aleksandr Kogan, Christopher Oveis


Perceived Stress and Smoking-Related Behaviors and Symptomatology in Male and Female Smokers (2016)

A strong positive association was observed between perceived stress and nicotine withdrawal symptomatology in smokers of both sexes, with a larger effect seen in women. These findings emphasize the importance of stress reduction in smokers, which may lead to fewer withdrawal symptoms and more effective smoking cessation.

Michael H. Lawless, B.S.; Katherine A. Harrison, M.P.H.; Gregory A. Grandits, M.S.; Lynn E. Eberly, Ph.D.; Sharon S. Allen, M.D., Ph.D.

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Reconsidering Stress and Smoking: A Qualitative Study Among College Students (2007)

Moving away from an individual‐focused analysis of stress to a broader assessment of the social contexts of smoking provides a more nuanced account of the multifunctionality of cigarettes in students' lives. Qualitative research draws attention to issues including the need for smoking and socialising during examination time, smoking as a way to take a break and refocus, notions of second‐hand stress and smoking to manage social relationships.

Mark Nichter, Mimi Nichter, Asli Carkoglu, the Tobacco Etiology Research Network

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Perceived Stress and Smoking Across 41 countries: A Global Perspective Across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas (2017)

First, our data suggest that perceived stress is significantly associated with higher smoking rates: each one-unit increase in the perceived stress scale (range 2–10) was associated with a 1.05 times higher odds for smoking in the pooled sample, while a moderate level of heterogeneity for this association was observed in country-wise analyses. Second, our study showed that this association was significant in Africa, the Americas, and Asia, but not in Europe. Finally, among daily smokers, higher levels of self-perceived stress were associated with increased odds for heavy smoking.

Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, A. Mathew Prina, Pao-Yen Lin, Ping-Tao Tseng, Evangelos Evangelou, Marco Solmi, Cristiano Kohler, André F. Carvalho, Ai Koyanagi

National Center for Biotechnology Information

Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies (2012)

Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

Katriina Heikkilä, Solja T. Nyberg, Eleonor I. Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Dirk De Bacquer, Jakob B. Bjorner, Sébastien Bonenfant, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Els Clays, Annalisa Casini, Nico Dragano, Raimund Erbel, Goedele A. Geuskens, Marcel Goldberg, Wendela E. Hooftman, Irene L. Houtman, Matti Joensuu, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, France Kittel, Anders Knutsson, Markku Koskenvuo, Aki Koskinen, Anne Kouvonen, Constanze Leineweber, Thorsten Lunau, Ida E. H. Madsen, Linda L. Magnusson Hanson, Michael G. Marmot, Martin L. Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Jaana Pentti, Paula Salo, Reiner Rugulies, Andrew Steptoe, Johannes Siegrist, Sakari Suominen, Jussi Vahtera, Marianna Virtanen, Ari Väänänen, Peter Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marie Zins, Töres Theorell, Mark Hamer, Jane E. Ferrie, Archana Singh-Manoux, G. David Batty, Mika Kivimäki, for the IPD-Work Consortium


How to Start a Journal

How to develop a daily journaling habit

Bryan Collins

Adult Attachment Theory and Research

Overview of research and breakdown of possible implications in adult relationships

R. Chris Fraley

How to Stick With Good Habits Every Day by Using the "Paper Clip Strategy"

Life hack style tips for productivity, goal stacking (implementation intentions- commit to actions ahead of time)

James Clear

The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance

Importance of rest and sleep in becoming an expert

K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf Th. Krampe, Clemens Tesch-Romer

Psychological Review

Study Suggests Home Cooking is a Main Ingredient in Healthier Diet

People who prepare their own meals at home intake fewer calories, sugars and fats

Julia A. Wolfson, Sara N. Bleich

Cambridge University Press

Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling (2013)

Examining the effects of Temptation Bundling on improving adherence to an exercise schedule

Katherine Milkman, Julia A. Minson, Kevin G. M. Volpp


10 Ways to Overcome Fear of Missing Out

Overcommitting and undercommiting in order to, in theory, not miss an opportunity

Linda Bloom, Charlie Bloom

Water: How Much Should You Drink Every Day

No exact amount recommended, everyone is different. Effects of dehydration and its causes

Mayo Clinic Staff

Weight Loss: 6 Strategies for Success

Recommendations for approaching a weight loss goal. 1-2 pounds per week is healthy

Mayo Clinic Staff

Foundmyfitness with Dr. Rhonda Patrick and guest Dr. Matthew Walker

Podcast with Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Matthew Walker discussing health benefits of sleep

FoundMyFitness, Dr. Rhonda Patrick, Dr. Matthew Walker (Guest)

What is Circadian Rhythm?

Explanation of Circadian Rhythm and its functions

Eric Suni, Alex Dimitriu

The Best Macronutrient Ratio for Weight Loss

Description of what macro and micronutrients are. All calories are not created equal. Build a macronutrient profile that fits your life and health needs. Create a diet that you can stick too long term.

Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD

Why Your Self-Care Isn't Working

Unrealistic expectations, easier said than done, no one-size-fits all approach.

Shainna Ali Ph.D., LMHC, NCC

Self-Care: 12 Ways to Take Better Care of Yourself

12 Tips on examples of self-care behaviors and how they can positively affect your life.

Tchiki Davis, Ph.D.